New vision of safety management of power generation enterprises under the condition of marketization
Wu Daqi 1, Xing Shaoshan 2 (1. Shanghai Electric Power Institute, Shanghai 200090; 2. Shandong Qingdao Municipal People's government, Shandong Qingdao 266000)
looking at the existing information materials of power safety production management at home and abroad, most of them are management measures based on experience, accident summary and system analysis, The theoretical basis of its safety management only involves management science, system engineering, probability theory, safety culture, safety technology and safety psychology, and has not yet formed a perfect theoretical system. After in-depth analysis of this theory, it is not difficult to find that it pays more attention to norms, that is, how to do a good job in the content of safety management. Indeed, we respect and believe that the basis of safety management in power generation enterprises must be safety norms. Therefore, The corresponding theoretical basis needs to be organically combined with norms as the core. However, today, when power generation enterprises move from closed electricity monopoly to market competition, under the new conditions of changing from a single goal to benefit, reputation, and safe interactive and three-dimensional management coordinates, it is advocated to build a new theoretical system of safety management of power generation enterprises based on economics, It is likely to become one of the breakthroughs in innovating the safety management theory and practice of power generation enterprises. The traditional safety management theory of power generation enterprises needs to be significantly revised and improved.
2 element observation from the perspective of economics
most economists in the past were keen on the research of "what should be", and made a detailed analysis in theory. Obviously, this is a normative method to provide policy recommendations. In recent years, Economists have realized the absolute necessity of explaining why things need empirical evidence like this. Because the original judgment under the established norms has been greatly impacted by the changed comprehensive environment. That is to say, the traditional experience of power generation enterprise safety management has been challenged by the facts. They should seek or improve the corresponding theory that can stand the test, and combine its theoretical methodology with practical guidance more closely and accurately, Undoubtedly, it will have the explanatory significance and application significance in economic theory.
we may wish to observe the current situation of safety management of enterprises that generate electricity and then clean the surface of experimental machines from the objective and subjective perspectives of economics, And evaluate its utility and behavior.
2.1 from an objective perspective, the safety state and safety evaluation of power generation enterprises
economics is called a science closest to Natural Science in social science. First, it is mathematical and economic assumptions and the logical and sophisticated economic model it establishes, from Walla's general equilibrium model to rational expectation model, and then to promoting plastic blending technology The derivation process of new plastic additives, the progress of utilization technology and the development of "prisoner's dilemma" and other models of game theory are impeccable and very precise. Because the polyurea market has fallen into vicious competition, as long as the hypothesis is fully demonstrated to be in line with the facts, the objectivity of the economic evaluation of the safety of power generation enterprises can be guaranteed, which is precisely the most desired content of the safety management of power generation enterprises, It includes the objective state of safety and the objective evaluation of safety.
from the perspective of property rights, the current power generation enterprises are divided into two categories. One is independent power plants. Generally, industrial countries build independent power plants to introduce competition mechanism and break the power monopoly, so as to reduce power costs and electricity prices, so as to improve the efficiency and efficiency of the power industry. One of the purposes of establishing independent power plants in China, In order to solve the problems of power supply shortage and insufficient funds for power construction, it has gradually evolved from raising funds to run power plants. The other is the subsidiaries or branches of power companies. With the implementation of China's power management system and plan, in a regional power, several power plants form an independent power generation company, forming a bidding pattern of several independent power companies, It will become the main way of competition in the power market. Generally speaking, independent power plants refer to independent corporate power plants or power generation companies, which are independent accounting enterprise legal entities that sell all electric energy (except auxiliary power) to electricity.
it must be particularly pointed out that there are several situations that affect independent power plants in the process of power marketization, It also plays an important role in its safety status and evaluation. For example, some power plants are not included in the power planning when they are approved, and there are no specifications such as power purchase and sale agreement, dispatching agreement, and product management agreement that the entrusted universal experimental machine is the combination of modern electronic technology and mechanical transmission technology; There is no equal mechanism to restrict the "dispute" of electricity distribution, economic exchanges and production scheduling; Power plants with different property rights have adopted different pricing principles and calculation methods, as well as the current situation of one plant, one machine, or one machine with multiple prices under complex electricity prices. All these have brought new influencing factors to the safe operation of power plants and the objectivity of evaluation.
from the objective perspective of economics, the safety status of power generation enterprises is to ensure that the lives of employees of power generation enterprises are guaranteed in their production process, The body is free from injury, and the equipment and materials make the best use of them and operate well. This is a true reflection of the safety state of the enterprise, which is dominated by people and supplemented by equipment. Therefore, the safety evaluation of power generation enterprises should be: comprehensively use the method of safety system engineering to measure and predict the safety of the system, and confirm the possibility and severity of the danger of the system through qualitative and quantitative analysis of the danger of the system, Put forward necessary measures to seek the lowest accident rate, the lowest accident loss and the highest safety investment income. This is an enterprise safety evaluation system based on science and combining qualitative and quantitative methods. Facts have proved that the safety status and safety evaluation of power generation enterprises are not transferred by people's will, It is a factual phenomenon existing in the safety management of power generation enterprises in a certain period of time.
2.2 from a subjective perspective, the safety utility and safety behavior of power generation enterprises
dialectics tells us that material determines consciousness and consciousness guides behavior. From a subjective perspective, this is a process of recognizing and transforming the world. In the language of modern economics, it is to use empirical analysis methods or with the help of specific assumptions, Carry out empirical research on the operation and development process of the real economy, explain and predict this process, and then theoretically clarify the problems of "what" and "why" of the real economic state. Therefore, from the subjective perspective of economics, we propose the safety utility and safety behavior of power generation enterprises.
utility in economics refers to the degree of satisfaction people get from the consumption or activities of commodities, Generally, utility has an important psychological component, which means that people can provide their own happiness by obtaining